One concern when utilizing high quality adjusted life years (QALY) to measure well being features for value effectiveness analysis is that QALYs “undervalue” well being features from life extension for folks with critical sickness or persistent incapacity. To see this clearly, check out the QALY components (first components under) and the way it may be decomposed into adjustments in high quality of life (Q) and survival (S) for a brand new intervention (listed at 1) in comparison with the outdated (listed to 0).
Word that the survival features are solely valued on the high quality of life that the intervention can acheive (Q1t). Thus, survival enhancements for sufferers who stay having a poor high quality of life are devalued relative to those that woudl be in good and even good well being.
A paper by Campbell, Whittington and Pearson (2023) describes how the Institute for Scientific and Financial Assessment (ICER) computes another measure: equal worth of life years gained (evLYG). I’ve described this method beforehand right here. evLYG could be calculated as follows:
On the best hand facet , the second time period is similar in each the evLYG and QALY equations, indicating that high quality of life features throughout the survival interval of the primary individual are evaluated the identical. Nevertheless, below evLYG, survival features are valued at another quantity (Qt) which could be totally different from the standard of life worth of the brand new therapy. Underneath the unique evLYG method proposed by Nord et al. (1999), survival features are valued at good well being (i.e., Qt=1). Nevertheless, the Campbell et al. method utilized by ICER, units Qt=0.851, which is the same as the common utility of the overall US grownup inhabitants. Word that the ICER method assigns decrease evLYG than does the Nord method.
Underneath ICER’s implementation of evLYG, the totally different in the best way well being features are measured between evLYG and QALYs could be summarized as follows:
evLYG have the important thing benefit that survival features to sicker sufferers are valued extra (though much less below ICER’s implementation than below Nord).
In actual fact, ICER’s evaluation of 32 distinctive interventions utilizing each evLYG and QALY discovered that in 66% of instances ΔevLYG>ΔQALY, and in 34% of instances ΔevLYG=ΔQALY. The imply proportion change between an intervention dyad’s incremental QALYs and incremental evLYs was 16%. Within the interventions the place ΔevLY > ΔQALY, incremental evLYs had been 25% increased than incremental QALYs.
One key limitation of evLYG is that high quality of life enhancements throughout the ‘survival achieve’ interval should not captured below evLYG.
You possibly can learn the total paper here. It’s a helpful primer each on what evLYG is and the way ICER has been utilizing evLYG in its assessments.